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[BC健康指南] 膳食脂肪與健康 Dietary Fats and Your Health

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发表于 2010-12-16 08:10:48 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 梅花鹿 于 2010-12-16 08:30 编辑

为何脂肪这样重要? Why is fat important?
每个人都要吃一点脂肪,才能保持健康。膳食脂肪(dietary fats)可以提供能量,并协助您吸收食物中的各种维他命,例如维他命A、D、E及K。
Everyone needs to eat some fat to stay healthy. Dietary fats give you energy and help you absorb vitamins from foods, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K.


001.jpg 要吃多少脂肪才算足够? How much fat is enough?
您每日所需的脂肪量,视乎您的年龄、性别和活跃程度而定。一般來說,男性需要大约65克脂肪,女性则需要大约50克脂肪。换言之,您通常应该选择低脂的食物,并且每日在食物中加入少量(2至3汤匙或30至45克)的不饱和脂肪,例如非氢化的植物牛油、食油或沙律酱。
The amount of fat you should have every day depends on your age, gender, and activity level. Generally, men should aim for about 65 grams of fat, while women should aim for about 50 grams. This usually means choosing foods that are low in fat, and adding a small amount (2 to 3 tablespoons or 30 to 45 grams) of unsaturated fats to foods each day, such as non-hydrogenated margarine, oil or salad dressing.


吃太多脂肪,会有甚么后果? What if I eat too much fat?
吃一点脂肪对您的健康有益。可是太常吃高脂肪含量的食物,会令体重增加,因为脂肪有很高的热量(卡路里)。体重过高会增加您患上糖尿病的风险。吃过多脂肪,也可能引起其他健康问题,例如癌症和心脏病。
Eating some fat is good for your health. However, eating high fat foods too often can result in weight gain because fats are very high in calories. Being overweight can increase your risk of developing diabetes. Eating too much fat can also lead to other health concerns, such as cancer and heart disease.


健康的脂肪选择 Healthy Fat Choices
各种脂肪有不同特性。有些脂肪对您的身体有益,有些则有损健康。一些高脂肪食品,例如炸薯条或曲奇饼,虽含大量脂肪,但营养价值甚低。果仁、籽類、牛油果、鲑鱼、沙丁鱼和芝士都是高脂肪食品,但也含有各种重要的养分。
单元不饱和脂肪(monounsaturated fats)是良好的脂肪选择,有助于降低胆固醇水平。橄榄油、芥花籽油和大豆油,及以这些材料制成的食品,还有牛油果和果仁,都含有单元不饱和脂肪。
多元不饱和脂肪(polyunsaturated fats)也有助于降低胆固醇水平。奥米加3和奥米加6脂肪,是兩种特别的多元不饱和脂肪,对您的健康非常重要。鱼、亚麻籽、核桃和芥花籽油,均含有奥米加3脂肪。籽類、红花油(safflower oil)、向日葵油、粟米油和大豆油,及含有这些材料的食品,均含丰富的奥米加6脂肪。
your health, while others are not. Some high fat foods, like chips or cookies, give you very little nutrition with the fat. Nuts, seeds, avocado, salmon, sardines, and cheese are also high fat foods, but they provide important nutrients as well.
Good choices are monounsaturated fats, which help to lower cholesterol levels. These fats are found in olive, canola and soybean oils and in foods with these ingredients, as well as in avocado and nuts.
Polyunsaturated fats also help to lower cholesterol levels. Two special polyunsaturated fats – omega 3
and omega 6 – are very important for your health. Omega 3 fats are found in fish, flax seeds, walnuts and canola oil. Good sources of omega 6 fats are seeds, safflower, sunflower, corn, and soybean oils, and foods that contain these ingredients.


不健康的脂肪选择 Unhealthy Fat Choices
饱和脂肪(saturated fats)和反式(转化)脂肪(trans fats)会提高血液中的胆固醇水平,因此都不是健康的选择。少吃饱和脂肪和反式脂肪,是非常重要的事。饱和脂肪通常可以在动物食品(特别是肥肉,例如香肠、烟肉)和高脂奶類食品(例如牛油、鲜忌廉、酸奶、忌廉芝士和薯片沾汁)中找到。
Saturated and trans fats are poor choices mainly because they can increase blood cholesterol levels. It is very important to eat less saturated and trans fats. Saturated fats are mostly found in animal products, especially fatty meats like sausages and bacon, and in high fat dairy products like butter, whipping cream, sour cream, cream cheese and chip dips.
反式脂肪,多數來自透过局部氢化过程制成固体的植物油,例如:硬植物牛油、酥油、甜甜圈(donut)、丹麦酥皮饼(Danish pastry)、曲奇饼、饼干、薯片和各類快餐食品。
Trans fats come mostly from vegetable oils that have been made solid through partial hydrogenation. Examples include hard margarine, shortening, donuts, Danish pastries, cookies, crackers, chips, and many fast foods.


健康饮食 Healthy Eating
家中用膳的小提示:
Tips for meals at home:
●  少用牛油,但每日可用一点食油和非氢化植物牛油。尝试用油和意大利黑醋(balsamic vinegar)、蒜头、香草等材料,自制沙律汁。
Use less butter, but add a small amount of oil and non-hydrogenated margarine each day. Try making your own salad dressings with oil and ingredients like balsamic vinegar, garlic, and herbs.

●  尝试添加芥末、茄汁、酸瓜酱和小红莓酱(cranberry sauce),使食物更美味。
Use condiments like mustard, ketchup, relish, and cranberry sauce to add flavour to foods.

●   以不用脂肪的烹调方法煮食,例如焗、烘焙或以微波爐煮熟。
Use cooking methods that do not use fat, like baking, broiling or microwaving.

●   尝试吃脂肪含量较低的甜点 — 一件芝士蛋糕的脂肪含量可达20克之多。以自制的水果批(每半杯含5克脂肪)或雪葩(每半杯含2克脂肪)代替。
Experiment with lower fat desserts – a piece of pie or cheesecake can have up to 20 grams of fat. Substitute with homemade fruit crisp (5 grams/half cup) or sherbet (2 grams/half cup).
            
●   买脱脂奶或1%低脂奶 — 1杯全脂奶含8克脂肪,1杯1%低脂奶只含3克脂肪。如果您习惯喝全脂奶,可以先改为喝2%低脂奶,让您慢慢适应。
Buy skim or 1% milk – 1 cup of whole milk contains 8 grams of fat while 1 cup of 1% milk has only 3 grams. If you are used to whole milk, change slowly by switching to 2% milk first.

小食小提示:Tips for snacks:
●    尝试吃一份低脂乳酪(3克脂肪)或自制低脂香蕉松饼(5克脂肪)。
Try a low fat yogurt (3 grams fat) or a low fat homemade banana muffin (5 grams fat).
●   买饼干时要看标签,选一款每份脂肪含量低于3克的饼干。
Read labels and choose crackers that have less than 3 grams of fat per serving.
●   鲜果、气热式爆谷(air popped popcorn)及扭结饼(pretzel),都是几乎完全不含脂肪的小食。
Snacks that have almost no fat include fresh fruit, air popped popcorn, and pretzels.

出外用膳的小提示:Tips for eating out:
●   别吃油炸食物,要选吃煎、烤、水煮或烧烤的食物。
Choose foods that are grilled, roasted, poached, or barbequed, rather than deep-fried.
●   问侍应可否以其他材料取代。例如,加了一茶匙非氢化植物牛油的焗薯,只有5克脂肪,但一份大的炸薯条,可含超过20克脂肪。
Ask for menu substitutions. For example, a baked potato with a teaspoon of non-hydrogenated margarine has 5 grams of fat, while a large order of fries can have over 20 grams of fat.
●   尝试与朋友共享一份甜点,这样可以将脂肪减半。
Try sharing dessert with a friend and cut the fat in half.

关于食物卷标的信息 Information on Food Labels
营养资料表(下图)列出包装食品中的脂肪种類和含量。您可以按照这些信息,选购较健康的包装食品。
The Nutrition Facts Table (see below) shows how much and what kind of fat is in pre-packaged foods. You can use this information to help you choose healthier prepackaged foods.

  营养数据表Nutrition Facts Table



关于食物中脂肪及其他养分含量的详细资料,请参阅Canadian Nutrient File,网址:www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/fiche-nutri-data/index_e.html
For more information on the amount of fat and other nutrients in foods see The Canadian Nutrient File at
www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/nutrition/fiche-nutri-data/index_e.html.


欲知更多有关营养的信息,请致电8-1-1  向注册营养师查询。
For nutrition information, call 8-1-1 to speak with a registered dietitian.

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如欲解较多 HealthLink BC File 课题,请浏览 www.HealthLinkBC.ca/healthfiles/index.stm 网页,或到访您.区内的公共卫生单位。
For more HealthLink BC File topics, visit www.HealthLinkBC.ca/healthfiles/index.stm or your local public health unit.
如要获取卑诗的非紧急健康信息和服务,可点击 www.HealthLinkBC.ca,或致电8-1-1
Click on www.HealthLinkBC.ca or call 8-1-1
失聪或弱听人士如需协助,在卑诗内可致电7-1-1
for non-emergency health information and services in B.C.
我们可按要求,提供130多种语言的翻译服务。
For deaf and hearing-impaired assistance, call 7-1-1 in B.C.
Translation services are available in more than 130 languages on request.
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來源:根据“加拿大卑诗卫生部”资料整理              转载请注明出处http://www.ccitv.ca
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