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[杂谈] “禁忌”词汇的英语表达:大便、小便、放屁

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匿名  发表于 2014-1-12 01:21:07 |阅读模式
一名中国留学生初到美国,在机场找厕所,问老外:Where is w.c.? 老外听不懂。* B+ H( V4 j4 D9 |4 @
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一名中国太太到医院生产,洋护士问她:Did you have a bowel movement? 她却听不懂。1 t! V. z6 I6 }! n6 R9 Z! K+ s

6 G; x) u2 f6 @9 m3 s3 }还有人学了几十年的英语,还不晓得英语里的「大便」、「小便」、「放屁」真正应该怎么说……
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" s. K  ~3 g# ^7 ]* r至于性毛病,更是难于启齿、欲语还羞的尴尬。见到洋医生,窘迫万分,不知如何开口才是,真有“犹抱琵琶半遮面”的感受。
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9 P9 b" G$ z. z: V4 `2 w- r以下为一些“禁忌”(taboo)美语的整理。毕竟这些都是日常生活的一部分,说不定有一天这些“禁忌”之语还能派上用场呢!
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! `# e# H1 S2 `& H1 F厕所* r4 A0 k0 |) }! q8 v! \# I

, y& c5 f, ]! z2 V  B; O在美国一般都叫rest room或bath room(男女厕均可)或分别叫做 men‘s room 或 ladies‘ room(=powder room),不过在飞机上,则叫 lavatory, 在军中又叫 latrine.5 A: ~4 y0 ]. d  M+ x* J6 A! S

; V+ q0 z) K( F) K6 u+ L( \至于 w.c.(water closet)仍是过去英国人用的,在美国,几乎没有人使用。( B; b  [0 [# T0 S7 `# a- V% f
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解小便
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6 k0 T$ N( _! H. k( l, ^最普通的说法是 to urinate(名词是 urination).
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如果去看病,护士为了化验小便,就会给你一个杯子说:Will (could) you urinate in this cup?
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1 D* R3 o8 [) t! m医生或许也会问:Do you have trouble urinating?=Do you have difficulty voiding?(小便有困难吗?)+ A/ Q& I* [4 F0 ^4 x9 F4 R6 |
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此外,还有其他的说法:to piss = to take a piss = to take a leak = to void = to empty.
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例如:I need to piss = I have to take a leak.
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7 a! n( R, Q2 A4 m4 LHow often do you get up at night to void?(晚上起床小便几次?)8 \! Q  P1 M6 m; v

6 d8 t+ G2 r# I, c: E( G此外,john(j 小写时,不是男人名字)是 bath room 或 toilet 的意思(也叫 outhouse),这通常是指在户外工作场地所使用的临时或流动性厕所(有时前面也加 portable 一字)。不过也有老外把家里的厕所叫做 john.
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9 B8 T: j" E9 R6 I9 o) c2 V例如:/ Q8 B) L6 q. [0 r. w
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There are several (portable) johns in the construction site.8 H8 f$ ?6 Z" a6 C( g$ g
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在建筑场地有几个临时厕所。5 s  h. w1 l" H- i0 d: _

8 f& O; G/ s, t( o5 L8 pHe went to the john a few minutes ago.
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他在几分钟前上了厕所。6 ~1 }( H& l9 T

& H! `; y! ]8 x" G5 HThe manual labours have to use (portable) johns during their working hours.
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% S- @  `% J' A; U6 k0 [劳动者在工作时间内需要使用流动性厕所。, [1 S, e9 G5 N4 G4 O6 k1 F
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不过,小孩多半用 to pee.
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% V: ?, t9 H, K/ g6 h. ^6 }; e/ u例如:the boy needs to pee.
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3 D, t! N/ {5 M2 F  r  m然而,「小便检查」又叫做 urine test, 因为这里的 urine 是化验的样品(specimen)。
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( I, g- B0 i2 U8 m7 e( X& g例如:Do i need a urine test?1 G) D2 j/ R8 W' B# e
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注意:to piss off 是片语,又是指对人生气或对事物的不满。不过这是不礼貌的片语,少用为妙。
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例如:He pissed me off. = he made me angry.
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He always pisses off (at) the society.(对社会不满). u& ^: v( W5 Z# Q, c
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如果「小便」有毛病,也可以告诉医生说:
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7 t( Y; h4 i. ~" }! FMy urine is cloudy and it smells strong.
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6 b: A* q* f3 n4 l6 `! d有浊尿,味道很重。3 }9 _! d7 R+ w# o. y' A: P

7 M& X" @8 a, k$ c; k' a0 [$ P* zI have pus (或air)in urine. (pus = cloudy; air = bubble)9 [7 M: K2 z( f5 `  {
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尿有泡沫。3 ]; D& m7 r& k% x
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I dribble a little urine after i have finished urinating.
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* M! C  D' Q9 N0 T3 ^小便后还会滴滴答答。(即失禁毛病)
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I am passing less urine than usual.
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小便的量比平时少。# g. {- J+ v# `' h- n. c: e9 d( y8 h
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解大便2 p& Y* `" }3 z% ^4 b5 m' t% ^

$ U: E, E* F# V0 p6 @# L一般是用 to make(或 have)a bowel movement 或 to take a ****.) ^/ z/ H, m9 s9 Y0 O

9 A2 E0 L; o; y  V( l如果看病,医生常问:Do you have regular bowel movement?(大便正常吗?)(说得斯文些,就是「大肠在转动」)  Z+ p; g' t; I3 L
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此外,还有其他的说法: to defecate =to discharge excrement(或 feces)=to take feces (或 faeces).* @+ t7 M% T, `
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例如:the patient needs to take a ****. (=to make a bowel movement)
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( R$ b0 V7 H3 R不过,小孩多半是用 to make a poo poo 或 to make a bm.+ I  c( _& R  i5 _
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例如:The boy had a stinky bm.+ C# b: D" z2 Y9 O3 n9 G. k6 V

; O& E. Q/ C9 D- y( h大便奇臭。% `% M% u4 H0 |, H/ |6 l: ^+ R

$ I+ c" o7 p, O: m0 N* |但是「大便检查」倒叫做 stool exam, 因为 stool 也是一种化验的样品。, V5 m( w- m6 U' C6 P1 X
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例如:The doctor has to exam his stool.# j' k* O4 @6 ]2 w" x" K! |

1 t- d8 k; w* ^8 W医生要检查他的大便。" @# A- O* \4 b% Z% T1 T

( J6 h. T: l5 I8 X) \放屁" C: W. b! n  N7 S. Y: V

8 J9 V! v7 ~. W/ t) B: w5 ?  Z/ H在美语里最常用的是 to expel gas 或 to fart 或 to make (或 pass)gas.+ \+ J" S6 M3 O* S

' L8 H- @. B4 q& ?& h& V  o0 E/ I例如:医生有时问:How often do you expel(或 make 或 pass)gas?
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你放屁的次数很多吗?
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Is the gas expelled by belching?(动词是 belch)
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是否打嗝后就会放屁呢?+ _! @! }( ?( B0 \

4 r* R3 @2 R& q6 l0 R' AHe said the more he ate, the more he farted.* z( V4 P0 }! L1 w4 ]2 A: s. Q

/ V0 X5 F8 w; T4 ?# D: o吃的愈多,放屁也愈多。8 Y8 H0 Y5 ~8 B: B2 F  ~

) L- W& ]9 `# H5 V" \8 c. QHe has passed more gas than usual within the last two days.
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% l, K  X( ~) d4 t* Z过去两天中,他放屁比平常多。
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Be careful not to fart in the public.
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; h- U% f' q; I- a注意在公共场所不可放屁。
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至于消化不良,大便不通或拉肚子,也有不同的说法。3 q% m; B/ E7 I& @9 g

: ^2 E- E) J. u3 S+ H7 f- l例如:I have an upset stomach.(消化不良) = I have heartburn. = I have indigestion.0 {( T6 k- w! o$ K) |7 J  Z

, A, X! e2 |/ v/ M; |注意:heartburn 是指胃不舒服,不是「心痛」(heartache)( |# `* T  w" C+ H, S

8 A3 t& x2 u& c$ a  MSomething has upset my stomach for two weeks.
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胃不舒服有两星期了。* l! a% q$ m; V

, {. ], P3 B0 L& G  T: s4 s+ LHe has(persistent)constipation.(或 irregularity)9 M; n8 L* V3 m4 n+ V
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他经常便秘。8 _/ ~! t4 U- }' Y0 I2 `8 q

1 v: G1 ~* V3 y或:He ha***een unusually constipated.5 `- Y8 o7 j# |+ w! I; t* q
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便秘很反常。# ?- W- s7 A% e* z) a

0 ?2 ~1 E: ]9 _! ?或: He is having problem with irregularity.(或 constipation);
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或: he has no bowel movement for the past few days." z* ]' ~5 S( g: e2 D0 n, X
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He ha***outs of diarrhea.=he is having trouble with diarrhea.
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他拉了一阵肚子。8 t1 M- h2 V9 ?8 l) b7 g# H* G
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He can see trace of blood and pus or mucus in his stool(或 bowel movement)  v1 t2 M% O! N! A1 Q" g
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大便时可看到血丝和粘膜。
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