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发表于 2009-10-23 00:52:56 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
When the Crown is able to prove the elements of the offence beyond a reasonable doubt, the defence may still avoid conviction by raising a positive defence.当官方能够证明犯罪要素无可置疑,被告仍可能避免的信念,提高了积极的辩护。

A true defence arises when some circumstances affords the accused a partial or complete justification or excuse for committing the criminal act.一个真正的国防,就产生某些情况下,提供被告部分或全部理由或借口犯下的罪恶行径。 In Canada, the defences are generally similar to standard and popularly understood defences of other common law jurisdictions such as the UK, Australia and the United States.在加拿大,部队一般都类似于标准和普遍的理解部队的其他普通法司法管辖区如英国,澳大利亚和美国。 The true defences include duress [ 5 ] , automatism [ 6 ] , intoxication [ 7 ] , or necessity [ 8 ] .真正的部队包括胁迫 [ 5 ] ,全自动[ 6 ] ,中毒[ 7 ] ,或必要性 [ 8 ] 。 There is also a partial defence of provocation, which has the effect of reducing what would otherwise be murder to manslaughter.也有部分辩护的挑衅,其作用是减少本来是谋杀,误杀。 This partial defence is provided by s.232 of the Criminal Code.这部分所提供辩护s.232刑法。

Some defences are provided for by statute and some defences are provided for solely by the common law.有些部队是所规定的章程和一些部队所提供的完全由普通法。 In some cases common law defences are superseded by statutory enactment, for example duress, self-defence and as mentioned above, extreme intoxication.在某些情况下,普通法部队所取代法定的颁布,例如胁迫,自卫和如上所述,极端中毒。 Interestingly, in the case of duress the Supreme Court of Canada struck down the statutory provision as violative of s.7 of the Charter, leaving the broader common law defence instead.有趣的是,在胁迫的情况下加拿大最高法院否决的法定规定违反了联合国宪章第7条,使更广泛的普通法防御代替。 Statutory encroachments on the scope of common law defences can violate s.7 of the Charter if they unacceptably reduce the fault requirement of offences.法定侵犯的范围,普通法部队可以违反联合国宪章第7条的令人无法接受的,如果他们要求减少故障的罪行。

In addition to the true defences as mentioned above, there are other "defences" in a broader sense.除了真正的抗辩如上所述,还有其他的“部队”在更广泛的意义。 In some cases, these "defences" are really just an assertion that the Crown has not proven one of the elements of the offence.在某些情况下,这些“抗辩”其实只是一种断言,官方还没有证明的要素之一的罪行。 For example, the mistake of fact defence involves an assertion that the accused misunderstood some material factual matter that prevented him from forming the requisite mens rea for the offence.例如,事实错误的辩护涉及主张被告误解了一些物质的事实问题,使他无法形成必要的犯意的犯罪。 In the context of sexual assault, for example, a mistake of fact defence usually involves an assertion that the accused did not realize the complainant was not consenting.在性攻击,例如,一个事实错误的辩护律师通常涉及主张,被告不知道投诉人不同意。 Since the mens rea for sexual assault includes a subjective appreciation of the fact that the complainant is not consenting, the "defence" of mistake of fact in this context is thus properly understood as a failure on the part of the Crown to prove its case.由于犯意的性侵犯,包括主观的赞赏这样一个事实,即投诉人不同意,在“国防”的事实错误在这方面,因此,正确理解为是失败的部分官方证明其案件。 In practical terms and common parlance, however, it is still considered to be a defence.就实际情况而言,共同的说法,但是,它仍然被视为辩护。 Another example of this more general kind of defence is the "id defence", which is really just an assertion by the accused that the Crown has failed to prove the identity of the perpetrator of a crime beyond a reasonable doubt.另一个例子更普遍的一种防御是“编号辩护” ,这是真的主张由被告官方未能证明身份的犯罪者无可置疑。 There are many other examples of this kind of defence.还有许多其他例子,这种辩护。 In reality they are just clusters of specific shortcomings that arise frequently in the prosecution of certain kinds of offences.在现实中他们只是集群的具体缺陷,经常出现在检察机关的某些种类的犯罪行为。

All defences – whether one is speaking of true defences or defences in the broader sense – can arise from the evidence called by the Crown or the accused.所有抗辩-不管是讲真正的抗辩或抗辩在更广泛的意义-可能会出现所谓的证据,由官方或被告人。 A defence can only be left with the jury (or considered by a judge trying the case without a jury) where there is an "air of reality" to the defence on the evidence.防卫只能留给陪审团(或审议的法官审判案件没有陪审团)凡有“空气中的现实”的辩护的证据。 That air of reality can arise from the Crown's case and/or from the defence case if one is called.空气的现实可能引起官方的案件和/或由辩方如果其中一个被称为。 It is not necessary for an accused to testify or call other evidence to raise a defence.这是没有必要为被告作证,或致电其他证据,以提高辩护。 If the evidence called by the Crown is sufficient to raise an air of reality to a defence, the jury must consider whether the defence applies, most on the standard of whether it raises a reasonable doubt.如果有证据要求由官方足以提高空气的现实辩护,陪审团必须考虑是否适用于国防,最标准的,是否提出了合理的怀疑。 For example, in an assault case it may be that one of the Crown's eyewitnesses testifies that it looked to him like the victim punched the accused first and that the accused was defending himself.例如,在一宗伤人案可能是一个官方的目击者证明,它期待他喜欢打受害人被告首先是被告自己辩护。 In such a case, even if all the other eyewitnesses saw the accused punch first, the jury must consider whether on all of the evidence it has a reasonable doubt that the accused acted in self-defence.在这种情况下,即使所有其他目击者看到被告冲第一,陪审团必须考虑是否对所有的证据有合理的怀疑,被告采取行动进行自卫。

There is an even broader sense of the word "defence".有一个更广泛的意义上的“辩护” 。 Sometimes the defence will raise an issue capable of leading either to the termination of the proceedings or the exclusion of evidence.有时,辩方将提出一个问题能够领导或者终止诉讼程序或排除证据。 For example, in a drug case the accused might argue that the search warrant by which the police entered his house and seized the drugs was defective and that his constitutional rights were therefore violated.例如,在毒品案件的被告可能争辩说,搜查令,其中警察进入他家,并检获的毒品是有缺陷的,他的宪法权利,因此受到侵犯。 If he is successful in establishing such a violation, the evidence can be excluded, and usually the Crown cannot otherwise prove its case.如果他成功地建立这样一种违规行为,可以提出证据,排除,通常官方不能以其他方式证明其案件。 When this sort of thing happens, it is not really a defence at all, since the accused must establish it in a separate pre-trial application.当这样的事情发生,这是不是一个真正的辩护律师在所有的,因为被告必须建立在一个单独的预审申请。 Nevertheless, lawyers often refer to such applications as a "Charter defence" in reference to the Charter of Rights.然而,律师经常提及这类申请作为“宪章辩护”中提到权利宪章。

Other forms of Charter defence can lead not to the exclusion of evidence but to the termination of the proceedings, known as a stay of proceedings.其他形式的宪章辩护可能导致不排除证据,而且对终止诉讼,被称为中止诉讼程序。 For example, if the accused is not brought to trial within a reasonable time, the proceedings must be stayed for delay by virtue of ss.11(b) and 24(1) of the Charter.例如,如果被告没有受到审判的一段合理时间内,该程序必须保持对迟延凭借ss.11 ( b )和24 ( 1 )宪章。 Stays of proceedings can also take place in the absence of a Charter violation.停留程序也可以在没有违反联合国宪章。 For example, the familiar "defence" of entrapment is neither a true defence nor necessarily a Charter breach.例如,熟悉的“防务”的陷阱既不是一个真正的辩护律师,也不一定是违反联合国宪章。 When entrapment is successfully established, the proceedings are deemed to be an "abuse of process" for which the remedy is a stay of proceedings.当包封已成功建立,该程序被认为是一种“滥用程序” ,而补救办法是中止诉讼程序。 Cases of abuse of process arise in certain other circumstances, and they can also can involve Charter breaches, and there is significant overlap.虐待案件的过程中出现的某些其他情况下,他们还可以可涉及违反联合国宪章,并有显着的重叠。

Finally, ignorance of the law is not a defence.最后,对法律的无知不能作为辩护理由。 Section 19 of the Criminal Code specifically prohibits this defence.第19条刑法明确禁止这一辩护。 However, in rare cases ignorance of a law other than the one under which the accused is charged can be a defence if knowledge of that law is a relevant circumstance required to be proved as part of the actus reus and/or mens rea.然而,在极少数情况下无知的法律以外的其他下,被告被控可辩护如果知识是该法的有关情况需要证明作为犯罪行为和/或犯意。
[ edit ] Young offenders [ 编辑 ] 年轻犯人

Criminal law matters relating to young persons (those aged 12 through 17) are dealt with by the Youth Criminal Justice Act which provides for different procedures and punishments than those applicable to adults.刑法有关事项未成年人(年龄12至17岁)正在处理的青少年刑事司法法规定不同的诉讼程序和惩罚比那些适用于成年人。 It also provides that in some serious cases youths may be treated like adults for sentencing and other purposes.它还规定,在一些严重的案件青少
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