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加拿大刑法(1)

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发表于 2009-10-23 00:53:31 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
加拿大刑法
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(Redirected from Criminal law in Canada ) (重定向自刑法在加拿大 )
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The criminal law of Canada is under the exclusive jurisdiction of the federal government . 刑法加拿大是的专属管辖权下的联邦政府 。 The power to enact criminal law is derived from section 91(27) of the Constitution Act, 1867 .有权颁布刑法来自第91 ( 27 )的宪法法案, 1867年 。 Most criminal laws have been codified in the Criminal Code of Canada , as well as the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act , Youth Criminal Justice Act , and several other peripheral Acts.大多数刑事法律已被编入刑法加拿大以及管制药物和药物法 , 青少年刑事司法法 ,和其他一些外围行为。

There remains, however, a parallel power of the provincial government to “administer” the justice system, which gives the provinces power to enforce and prosecute laws.然而,仍然有一个平行的权力,省政府的“管理”的司法系统,使各省有权执行和起诉的法律。 In addition, this gives the provinces the power to enact quasi-criminal offences.此外,这使各省有权颁布准犯罪行为。 The administration of justice and penal matters are under the jurisdiction of the provinces, so each province administers most of the criminal and penal law through provincial and municipal police forces.司法行政和刑事事项的管辖之下的省份,因此,每个省管理的大多数犯罪和刑法,通过省,市警察部队。

立法

The Criminal Code of Canada sets out the majority of criminal offences and statutory defences (see Criminal Code ( RS, 1985, c. C-46 ) ).刑法规定了加拿大的大部分犯罪行为和法定抗辩(见刑法典(斯普斯卡共和国, 1985年,角架C - 46 ) ) 。 It also sets out the procedure to be followed in criminal trials.它还规定了应遵循的程序在刑事审判。 Drug offences are set out in the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act and the Food and Drugs Act.毒品犯罪中规定管制药物和药物法和食品和药品法案。 Offences committed by persons aged 12 through 17 (that is to say, 12 or older but less than 18) fall under the Youth Criminal Justice Act , which prescribes different procedures and penalties for young persons.犯下的罪行的人12岁至17 (也就是说, 12个或以上但少于18 )属于青少年刑事司法法 ,它规定了不同的程序和处罚未成年人。 Persons under the age of 12 cannot be charged with an offence.人12岁以下的不能被控犯。

Evidentiary matters in criminal trials are controlled by the common law and the Canada Evidence Act .证据事项在刑事审判中所控制的普通法和加拿大证据法 。

[ edit ] Prosecution [ 编辑 ] 起诉

A person may be prosecuted criminally for any offences found in the Criminal Code or any other statute containing criminal offences. [ 1 ]一个人可以被起诉的任何犯罪行为的刑事责任在刑法典或任何其他规约载有刑事罪行。 [ 1 ]

There are three types of offences.有3种类型的犯罪行为。 The most minor offences are summary conviction offences .最轻微的罪行循简易程序定罪的罪行 。 They are defined as "summary" within the Act and are punishable by a fine of no more than $5,000 and/or 6 months in jail.它们被定义为“摘要”的法案,并会被罚款不超过$ 5000和/或6个月的监禁。 Examples of offences which are always summary offences include trespassing at night (section 177) , causing a disturbance (s.175) and taking a motor vehicle without the owner's consent (s.335) .例子罪行总是简要罪行包括非法在夜间(第177号) ,造成了干扰( s.175 ) ,并采取了机动车辆的拥有人的同意( s.335 ) 。

The most serious are the indictable offences .最严重的是可公诉罪行 。 Examples of offences which are always indictable include murder (s.235) , robbery (s.344) and break and enter of a dwelling-house (s.348(1)(a) ).例子罪行总是公诉包括谋杀( s.235 ) ,抢劫( s.344 )和休息,并输入一个住宅( s.348 ( 1 ) ( a )条) 。 The available penalties are greater for indictable offences than for summary offences.现有的惩罚更大的可公诉罪行比简易程序治罪。

Most offences defined by the Criminal Code are hybrid offences , which allow the prosecution to elect whether to prosecute the offence as a summary or an indictable offence.大多数犯罪定义的刑法典是混合的罪行 ,使检察机关选举是否提出检控犯罪作为决或可公诉罪行。 Until the Crown elects the offence is treated as indictable.直到官方选举被视为犯罪公诉。

In most cases where the offence is an indictable offence (or a hybrid offence where the Crown chooses to prosecute the offence as an indictable offence), the accused person can elect whether to be tried by a provincial court judge, by a judge of the higher court of the province without a jury or by a judge of the higher court with a jury.在大多数情况下的罪行可公诉罪行(或混合型犯罪的检察官选择起诉的罪行可公诉罪行) ,被控人可以选择是否要在尝试了省法院法官,由法官较高省法院没有陪审团或法官的上级法院的陪审团。 In cases described by section 553 of the Criminal Code, the accused person does not have an election and must be tried by a judge of the provincial court without a jury.案件中所描述的第553刑法时,被告人没有选举,必须审判的法官的省级法院没有陪审团。 As per sections 471 and 472 of the Criminal Code, if the offence is listed in section 469 , then the accused person does not have an election, and must be tried by a judge of the higher court with a jury (unless both the accused person and the prosecutor consent to a trial by a judge of the higher court without a jury).由于每节471和472的刑法典,如果罪行的列在第469 ,然后被控人没有当选,并必须受到审判的法官的上级法院的陪审团(除非双方被控人和检察官同意审判法官的上级法院没有陪审团) 。

年可能被当作成人的判决和其他用途。
[ edit ] Elements of an offence [ 编辑 ] 犯罪要素的

Criminal offences require the prosecuting crown to prove that there was criminal conduct (known as the actus reus or "external element") accompanied by a criminal state of mind (known as the mens rea or "fault element") [ 2 ] on a standard of " beyond a reasonable doubt ". [ 3 ] Exception to the mens rea requirement for strict and absolute liability offences.刑事罪行,要求起诉冠证明有犯罪行为(称为犯罪或“外部因素” )伴随着犯罪的心理状态(称为犯意或“故障元素” ) [ 2 ]的标准的“ 超越合理怀疑 ” 。 [ 3 ]例外犯意要求严格和绝对责任的罪行。

The specific elements of each offence can be found in the wording of the offence as well as the case law interpreting it.的具体内容,每项罪名可找到的措辞,以及罪行的判例法解释它。 The external elements typically require there to be an "act", within some "circumstances", and sometimes a specific "consequence" that is caused by the action. [ 4 ]外部因素通常需要有一个“法” ,在一些“情况” ,有时一个具体“后果” ,也就是行动所造成的。 [ 4 ]

The mental or fault elements of an offence are typically determined by the use of words within the text of the offence or else by case law.心理或过失犯罪要素的确定通常使用文字的文本或其他罪行的案例法。 Where no standard is explicitly stated conduct must typically be proven to have been done with a general intent (ie intent to act in a certain way irrespective of the action's outcome).如果没有标准是明确的行为通常是必须证明已经完成了一般性意图(即意图行事,以某种方式,不论采取行动的结果) 。 Where certain circumstances are part of the offence, the accused must have had knowledge of them, which can be imputed based on conduct and other evidence.在某些情况下是犯罪行为,被告必须有知识的人,可估算的基础上的行为和其他证据。
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